What is MOGAD?
* Revised 4/12/2021. This information sheet has been reviewed and approved by members of SRNA’s Medical and Scientific Council.
MOG antibody disease (MOGAD) is a recently coined neuro-inflammatory condition that preferentially causes inflammation in the optic nerve but can also cause inflammation in the spinal cord and brain. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a protein that is located on the surface of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system.1,2 While the function of this glycoprotein is not exactly known, MOG is a target of the immune system in this disease.3 The diagnosis is confirmed when MOG antibodies in the blood are found in patients who have repeated inflammatory attacks of the central nervous system.4
Those with MOG Antibody Disease may previously have been diagnosed with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), Transverse Myelitis (TM), Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Optic Neuritis (ON), or multiple sclerosis (MS) because of the pattern of inflammation it causes including brain, spinal cord and optic nerve damage. Patients with persistently positive antibodies are at risk for recurrent events. Those with MOG antibody disease do not test positive for the NMO antibody called aquaporin 4 (AQP-4). MOG antibody disease and AQP-4 positive NMOSD are thought to have distinct immunological mechanisms.4 Furthermore, those with MOG antibody disease seem to be less likely to have other autoimmune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, etc.) than those with AQP-4 positive NMOSD.4
(1) Fan S, Xu Y, Ren H, et al. Comparison of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody disease and AQP4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) when they co-exist with anti-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor encephalitis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Feb;20:144-152. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.01.007. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
(2) Kezuka T, Ishikawa H. Diagnosis and treatment of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody positive optic neuritis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2018 Mar;62(2):101-108. doi: 10.1007/s10384-018-0561-1. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
(3) Dos Passos GR, Oliveira LM, da Costa BK, et al. MOG-IgG-Associated Optic Neuritis, Encephalitis, and Myelitis: Lessons Learned From Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. Front Neurol. 2018 Apr 4;9:217. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00217. eCollection 2018.
(4) Weber MS, Derfuss T, Metz I, Brück W. Defining distinct features of anti-MOG antibody associated central nervous system demyelination. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2018 Mar 29;11:1756286418762083. doi: 10.1177/1756286418762083. eCollection 2018.