Among patients with AQP-4 seronegative NMOSD, the frequency of a positive MOG antibody test ranges between 7.4% and 39%.5 Studies have indicated that between 40% and 58% of children diagnosed with ADEM are positive for the anti-MOG antibody.6,7 While there is significant overlap between MOGAD, NMOSD, and ADEM, it appears that MOGAD is a unique immunological condition.
Some studies have shown that those with MOG antibody disease are on average younger and are likely to be male compared to those with AQP-4 positive NMOSD,4,5,8 but other studies have shown no age differences3 and varying gender distributions.3,4 One study revealed a higher proportion of those of Caucasian ethnicity among MOG patients, while others have not shown this difference.3
(3) Dos Passos GR, Oliveira LM, da Costa BK, et al. MOG-IgG-Associated Optic Neuritis, Encephalitis, and Myelitis: Lessons Learned From Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. Front Neurol. 2018 Apr 4;9:217. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00217. eCollection 2018.
(4) Weber MS, Derfuss T, Metz I, Brück W. Defining distinct features of anti-MOG antibody associated central nervous system demyelination. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2018 Mar 29;11:1756286418762083. doi: 10.1177/1756286418762083. eCollection 2018.
(5) Lechner C, Baumann M, Hennes EM, et al. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in children with neuromyelitis optica and limited forms of the disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;87(8):897-905. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2015-311743. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
(6) Brilot F, Dale RC, Selter RC, et al. Antibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in children with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease. Ann Neurol. 2009 Dec;66(6):833-42. doi: 10.1002/ana.21916.
(7) Baumann M, Sahin K, Lechner C, et al. Clinical and neuroradiological differences of paediatric acute disseminating encephalomyelitis with and without antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015;86(3):265-272.
(8) Cobo-Calvo A, Ruiz A, Maillart E, et al. Clinical spectrum and prognostic value of CNS MOG autoimmunity in adults: The MOGADOR study. Neurology. 2018 May 22;90(21):e1858-e1869. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005560. Epub 2018 Apr 25.